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Ion exchange process

Water treatment includes two main processes applied for removal of ionized impurities from water: cation exchange and anion exchange. Depending on exchangeable ion the following processes and vessels are distinguished: Na-cation exchange, Na-cation exchange filter; H-cation exchange, H-cation exchange filter; OH-anion exchange, OH-anion exchange filter. The permeates obtained during these processes are called accordingly: Na-cationized water, H-cationized water, OH-anionized water, etc. Na-cation exchange is independent process and may be used for water softening whereas H- and OH-ion exchange processes are used jointly for water demineralization.

H-cation exchange may be applied for H- and Na-cation exchange of water. Water ionization processes at the water treatment facilities are performed in the ion-exchange mixed-bed filters, as well as cation- and anion-exchange filters.

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* The text is taken from:
A.S. Kopylov, V.M. Lavygin, V.F. Ochkov, "Water-treatment in power energetics"
(M. MEI Publishing House, 2003)